Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic diet; It is a high-fat and low carbohydrate diet. The ketogenic ratio (KO) is calculated as the ratio of dietary fat to the total protein and carbohydrates. Variations in these ratios may occur, and these changes constitute the types of the ketejuncic diet.


  • Standard ketogenic diet (SKD): This is a very low carb, moderate protein, and high fat diet. It usually contains 75% fat, 20% protein and only 5% carbohydrates.

  • Cyclic ketogenic diet (DCD): This diet type is formed by blending high carbohydrate periods with ketogenic days. After 2 high carbohydrate days, there are 5 ketogenic days.

  • Targeted ketogenic diet (HKD): This diet provides the ability to add carbohydrates to the diet in line with training. In addition to eating ketogenic diet meals, foods containing carbohydrates can be consumed according to the exercise rate.

  • High-protein ketogenic diet: This type is similar to the standard ketogenic diet, but contains more protein. This ratio is usually 60% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrate.

  • Cyclical or targeted ketogenic diets are more advanced methods and are mainly used by bodybuilders or athletes.

  • Often people follow the standard ketogenic diet (SKD).


The ketogenic diet criterion aims to minimize carbohydrate intake and close that gap with fat ratio. The reduction in carbohydrates makes the metabolism ketosis. This increases the rate of fat burning in metabolism. At the same time, it starts to turn the fat in our body into ketones in the liver that can be used by the brain. In this metabolic phase, our body turns to fat after the reduction of carbohydrate, which is the first energy source, and provides its energy by burning fat.

  • According to studies, those on the ketogenic diet lost 2.2 times more weight than those on a calorie-restricted low-fat diet. Triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels also improved.

  • Academic studies have found that people on the ketogenic diet lost 3 times more weight than the diet recommended by Diabetes UK.

  • It has been demonstrated that the ketogenic diet can have benefits for weight control and even against diabetes, cancer, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Ketogenic diets are among the diets that can aid recovery.


  • While vitamins and minerals are sufficient in a balanced diet, vitamins and minerals should be added as fruits, vegetables, grains and foods containing calcium are restricted in the ketogenic diet. In the ketogenic diet, calcium and vitamin D are low and vitamin D levels are low in individuals with epilepsy. Therefore, both vitamin D and calcium should be added. Zinc, copper, selenium and phosphorus are added if they are found to be low, if they are normal, it is given as a standard multi-vitamin. Use multi-vitamins that do not contain carbohydrates or are in small amounts.

Important Rules to Follow in Ketogenic Diet :

  • No food should be consumed outside the diet menu.

  • It is recommended to weigh the food to match the amounts in the menu correctly.

  • The times of meals should be followed.

  • Care should be taken to consume the amount of fluid to be taken daily.

  • No medication and supplements should be consumed without consulting a doctor.

  • Consumed products may contain hidden carbohydrates, label information should be read carefully and a nutritionist should be consulted.


  • Sugary Foods: Fruit juice, cake, biscuit, sugar etc.

  • Wheat-based products; rice, pasta, cornflakes

  • fruits; high sugar content

  • Legumes; Kidney beans, dry beans, lentils, chickpeas etc.

  • Root vegetables, potatoes, beets...

  • Dietary products; it is often against the ketogenic diet. They are high in carbohydrates, low in fat, and contain sugar alcohols that will affect ketone formation.

  • Some sauces; Contains sugar and unhealthy fats. Like ketchup.

  • Alcoholic beverages; their carbohydrate ratio is high.

  • Processed vegetable oils. Healthy fats with high omega 3 content should be consumed in the ketogenic diet.