Who is Martin Luther King? When is Martin Luther King day? Martin Luther King died as a result of his assassination at the age of 39, but in his short life, he became an important name that will mark world history. He strived for the belief in the equality of the races and advocated non-violence against injustice. In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Prize at the youngest age for non-violent resistance to overthrow racial prejudice in the United States. Every year since 1986, King's birthday has been commemorated in the US on the third Monday of January, the civil rights leader and the ideals he has defended throughout his life. This day was recorded as Martin Luther King Day . Details of Martin Luther King's life are in our news.
WHO IS MARTIN LUTHER KING?
Martin Luther King, Jr. He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee.
Morehouse College of Arts graduated from sociology in 1948. He received his theology license from the Crozer Theology Seminars in 1951. He received his doctorate in philosophy from Boston University in 1955. In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery led the bus boycott. Bus boycotts were caused by discrimination in the country. There have been tension post-boycotts over Miss Rosa Parks' refusal to give a white her seat. Black revolts have begun. Martin Luther King ended his action after the US administration stopped discrimination in buses.
He strived for the belief in the equality of the races and advocated non-violence against injustice. King, who organized the first protests in Montgomery, Alabama, was known for his peaceful actions in Atlanta, Georgia. King then gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963 in Washington. The pro-peace protests initiated by Martin Luther King led to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. By law, racial discrimination is prohibited in the United States.
King was awarded the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his work for human rights and for the elimination of black people from being second-class citizens. Every year since 1986, on the third Monday of January in the US, on King's birthday, the civil rights leader and his lifelong ideals are commemorated, spoken, and King's love for peace is expressed.
He is known worldwide for his anti-violence and racial equality views and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. In addition, in 1977, 9 years after his death, he was awarded the Presidential Freedom Prize by former US president Jimmy Carter, and Martin Luther King's Day began to be celebrated in his honor. King's most known and influential speech is "I Have a Dream".
Martin was born in Atlanta, Georgia to Martin Luther King and Alberta Williams King. According to Martin Luther King Jr.'s birth records, his name was Michael when he was born. After high school, he attended Marehouse College. Here he was influenced by Benjamin Mays, who was president and also a civil rights leader. He graduated from the Department of Sociology in 1948. He then graduated 1st from the Crozer College of Theology in Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1951. He received his master's degree in Systematic Theology from Boston University in 1955.
King married Coretta Scott in 1953. King's father held the wedding at the bride's father's house. King and Scott had 4 children: Yolanda Denise, Martin Luther III, Dexter Scott and Bernice Albertine. All four of King's children followed their father's path and became civil rights activists. Coretta Scott died on January 30, 2006.
CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS ACTION
King became the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1953 when he was just 24 years old, his most important black church. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for disobeying this even though Jim Crow's law had to give her place to a white man. Thereupon, King organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott lasted 382 days and the situation got so tense that King's house was bombed. During this boycott, King was arrested. The boycott continued until the American Supreme Court declared racial discrimination in interstate buses and other means of transport illegal.
After this boycott, King played an important role in the 1957 establishment of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which aimed to unite black churches and hold peaceful demonstrations for civil rights reform. King played an important role in this establishment until his death. King was a follower of the non-violent philosophy of civil disobedience practiced by Mahatma Gandhi and applied this philosophy by the SCLC in demonstrations.
The FBI began listening to King from 1961, fearing that communists were infiltrating the Civil Rights movement. However, no such evidence was found. The FBI used the records it had for 6 years to force King to leave the leadership position.
AJ Muste, a pacifist, advised Martin Luther King in his political actions. King, well-organized, non-violent demonstrations against the apartheid system in the south, also known as Jim Crow laws, would receive great media coverage. Indeed, programs written by journalists and broadcast on television sparked a great deal of interest in the Civil Rights Movement and made it the most important issue in America in the 1960s.
King organized and organized demonstrations for black suffrage, end of discrimination, employee rights, and other fundamental rights. All these rights became a part of American law with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
WALK TO WASHINGTON
King is perhaps best known for his "I Have a Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial during "Walk to Washington for Work and Freedom" in 1963.
"I have a dream that someday my four children will live in a country where all of my children will be judged not by the color of their skin but by their personalities.
King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of civil rights organizations that were instrumental in organizing the event called "The Big Six", March to Washington for Work and Freedom. Other organizations and individuals that made up the Big Six were: Ray Wilkins, NAACP; Whitney Young Jr., Urban League; Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SCNC; James Farmer, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). For King, this was a controversial role, as King was one of those who agreed with John F. Kennedy's wishes to change the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march firmly because he thought it would negatively affect the enactment of the law on citizens' rights. But the organizers of the march were determined to continue the march.
The march was originally intended as an opportunity for the deplorable blacks of the South and the march's organizers to express their wishes and grievances openly in the country's capital. The organizers were considering criticizing the inability of the federal government to ensure the rights and safety of blacks and civil rights workers in the South. However, the group succumbed to the pressure and influence of the US president, and the demonstration used a much softer tone.
As a result, some civil rights activists thought the demonstration presented a picture of racial cohesion free of false, unwanted portions. Malcolm X called the show "Farce on Washington".
However, the march made clear demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools, the enactment of a civil rights law, a prohibition of racial discrimination in the workplace, protection of civil rights activists from police violence, a minimum wage of $ 2 an hour.
Despite the tensions, the march was quite successful. 250,000 people from different ethnic groups participated in the march. This event was by then the most crowded show in Washington history. King's "I have a dream" speech made the crowd even more excited. This speech is regarded as one of the best speeches in American history.
King wrote and spoke many times during his tenure. The 1963 "Letter from Birmingham Prison" is a passionate demonstration of the pursuit of justice. In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Prize at the youngest age for non-violent resistance to overthrow racial prejudice in the United States.
King and SCLC attempted to organize a march from the city of Selma to the state capital of Montgomery on March 25, 1965, with the partial participation of SCNC. The first trial on March 7 was canceled due to the violence of the opposing crowd and the police. This day has been called "Bloody Sunday" from that date. Bloody Sunday was a turning point in providing public support for the Civil Rights Movement. However, King was not present during the show. After meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson, King asked to postpone the show on 8 March. However, the march was continued by local civil rights workers against King's will. The violence of the police against the demonstrators was broadcast widely and the footage caused great indignation in the society.
The second attempt was made on March 9. King stopped the demonstrators at Edmund Petrus Bridge outside the city of Selma in this trial. King had previously negotiated this move with the city's dignitaries. King's unexpected move caused a surprise resentment among the local movement. The march exactly continued on 25 March and ended.
In March 1968, King traveled to Memphis to support black healthcare professionals. AFSCME Local 1733, representing Black healthcare workers, had been on strike since March 12 and demanded higher wages and better treatment. For example, unlike white workers, when black workers were sent home due to bad weather, they were unpaid and paid less than whites.
On April 3, King spoke to a community in Memphis and delivered his speech titled "I've been to the Mountaintop".
King was killed at 6 pm on April 4 in a gun attack on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. When his friends in the motel room heard gunshots, he ran to the balcony and found King shot in the throat. At 7:04 am St. He died at Joseph's Hospital. The assassination caused riots in more than 60 cities. Five days later, US President Lyndon B. Johnson declared mourning. On the same day, a crowd of 300,000 attended his funeral. Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended the funeral on behalf of the President.
Two months after King's murder, fugitive inmate James Earl Ray was caught at Heathrow Airport, England, trying to leave England on a fake passport. Ray was soon returned to the United States. Ray was charged with the murder of King and confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969. (Ray came back from this confession 3 days later.) Ray was sentenced to 99 years in prison.
Upon the suggestion of his attorney Parcy Foreman, Ray confessed to the guilt, thus avoiding the risk of a death sentence for a court conviction. However, this did not prevent him from receiving a 99-year prison sentence.
According to biographer Taylor Branch, according to the conclusion from King's autopsy, although King was 39 when he died, he had the heart of a 60-year-old person. This was due to the stressful life he lived during his 13 years of civil rights activism. According to this, in the last 13 years of King's life, he had aged 34 years, 2.5 times faster than a person living a normal life.